Dutse mai daraja Ƙamus

Gemology Ƙamus - Gemological Cibiyar Cambodia Ƙamus. Dutse mai daraja Ƙamus. Gemstone Ƙamus

Abalone lu'u-lu'u

canza launin Baroque lu'u-lu'u samar da wani edible univalue mollusk wanda yana da wani kunne-dimbin yawa harsashi prized domin ta multicolored uwa-da-lu'u-lu'u rufi. Wadannan ana samu a Amurka, New Zealand da Japan ruwan. Ba safai ba spheroid, suka yawanci flattened kuma kunne ko tooth- siffa

Sha

ya dauki up (misali, wani abu) ko yi a ko samun makamashi daga annuri makamashi (misali, haske)

Sha bakan

da juna na duhu a tsaye Lines, makada, ko yankunan (m sha), gani a lõkacin da haske abin da aka daukar kwayar cutar ko nuna daga wani gemstone aka tarwatsa a cikin ta na gyara da kuma yayi nazari ta amfani da kayan aiki irin su spectroscope.

Adamantine

ga luster

Adularescence

da halayyar bluish-fari, ko kuma Milky Sheen (Schiller) moonstone

Allochromatic

a lokacin da miƙa mulki kashi ne ba kawai a matsayin qananan kazamta a cikin dutse mai daraja abu, da kayan ne allochromatic (Allo = sauran. chroma = launi)

Alluvium

Janar lokaci amfani ga adibas na dutse tarkace (alluvial adibas) wanda aka hawa da sunã gudãna ruwa da kuma hõrarru cikin rafi, kogi, ambaliyar bayyana ko lake gadaje.

Amorphous

ga wadanda ba crystalline

Anisotropic

ga ninki biyu Refractive

Archimedes manufa

Archimedes manufa ya furta cewa, a lõkacin da wata jiki ne immersed a cikin wani ruwa, to, zuwa gaba dirka da ruwa a jiki ne, sunã daidaita da nauyin da ruwa gudun hijira. (The tabbatar da dalilin da takamaiman nauyi da hydrostatic yin la'akari Hanyar dogara ne a kan wannan manufa)

Wucin gadi duwatsu

mutum da aka yi da lu'ulu'u da ba na halitta takwaransa (misali, da lu'u-lu'u simulants: strontium titanate da Yag)

Wucin gadi magani

da kayan haɓɓaka aiki na bayyanar da wani abu ta hanyar dumama, batawa, shafi, impregnation, sakawa a iska mai guba ko Laser-hakowa

Taru gemstones

wani dutse mai daraja yi sama da biyu ko fiye sassa abin da aka cemented ko Fused tare ta samar da wata guda dutse

Asterism

asterism ne mai gani sakamako, kullum hudu ko shida rayed, daga masu hada kai zaruruwa ko fibrous cavities a cikin wani dutse abin da aka yanka a en cabochon da inclusions daidaitacce layi daya ga abin ɗamara jirgin sama

Aventurescence

m spangled tunani na haske daga faranti ko flakes wani ma'adinai kunshe a cikin dutse (misali, kamar yadda gani a aventurine da gilashi, aventurine ma'adini, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))

Axis na fasali

daya daga cikin abubuwa na fasali, an axis na fasali na da hasashen line ta hanyar tsakiyar wani crystal, game da crystal za a iya juya su don gabatar da wannan bayyanar 2, 3, 4 ko 6 sau a daya cikakken juyawa (watau , irin wannan fuska occupies irin wannan matsayi, fiye da sau daya a cikin wani cikakken juyawa)

Baroque lu'u-lu'u

suna amfani da lu'u-lu'u, da na halitta da kuma ladabi, bororo ko mafitsara,

waxanda suke da wanda bai bi ka'ida ko doka ba a siffar

Basalt

basalt, ya fi na kowa extrusive igneous dutsen, mai duhu, m-grained dutsen da gaske ya tashi daga duhu feldspar da pyroxene (tare da ko ba tare da olivine). Akwai da dama irin wanda aka classified dangane gare saɓani a cikin irin zane, tsarin da kuma ma'adinai abun ciki

Biaxial duwatsu

a cikin orthorhombic, monoclinic da triclinic tsarin akwai uku crystal axes daban-daban tsawo. Biyu refraction zai faru ne a mafi yawan inda, amma za a yi biyu na gani axes (inda na guda refraction) cewa sãɓã wa jũna a cikin fuskantarwa a kowane daban dutse mai daraja jinsuna. ma'adanai na ga wadannan tsarin da ake da aka sani da biaxial. (A cikin orthorhombic tsarin da na gani axes ne daidai da karkata zuwa ga 'c' (manufa a tsaye axis), yayin da a cikin monoclinic da triclinic babu wani kai tsaye dangantaka da crystal axes.)

Birefringence

(ma gaba ka koma ga biyu refraction / DR) birefringence ne adadin biyu refraction wani anisotropic gemstone bayyana a matsayin bambanci tsakanin Refractive fihirisa a iyakar rabuwa

Biwa lu'u-lu'u

wadanda ba nucleated ladabi lu'u-lu'u (sau da yawa m, ko Baroque a siffar a Japan) farmed a kusa da gaba da Lake Biwa a Japan. Da lu'u-lu'u suna girma a cikin manyan sabo da ruwa mussels ta sa kananan niƙaƙƙun gaɓãɓuwa ​​na alkyabbar a cikin jiki na mussel

Lahani

Janar lokaci ga wani aibi da rinjayar da surface da wani dutse mai daraja. A lahani mafi yawa ana sa da dan Adam ayyuka, ko dai yayin da dutse mai daraja da ake yanka ko yayin da shi da ake sawa a kayan ado. Scratches, rami, kuma abrasions sun fi na kowa iri lahani

Bororo lu'u-lu'u

lu'ulu'u wanda aka rufe a gefe daya ne kawai da wani nacreous Layer da girma a kan wani asali irritant a lamba tare da mollusk harsashi. Lokacin da irin wannan lu'u-lu'u da ake cirewa, yankin da yake a lamba tare da harsashi ne danda na nacre. Daidai da wannan haifa gefen mafi yawa ana smoothed kashe da kuma a ɓõye, da saitin

Kwanyarsa

brilliance ne jimlar yawa na ƙ nuna haske da aka mayar wa ido daga gemstone. A madadin ana iya bayyana a matsayin haske (rai) mai gemstone kamar yadda m da adadin haske nuna mayar wa ido daga baya na fuskoki dabam-dabam na dutse

Brittleness

brittleness aka bayyana a matsayin wani rauni a cikin wani gemstone wanda duk da taurin, sa ya mai saukin kamuwa zuwa karaya, lalacewar (misali, zafin rana bi da zircon)

Cat ta ido

ga chatoyancy

Cibiyar fasali

daya daga cikin abubuwa na fasali, a cibiyar fasali ne ba da kõwane fuskar cikakken crystal ne diametrically gaban irin wannan fuska a daya gefen crystal (watau, kowane fuskarsa yana da wani fuskar cewa shi ne kama, daura da layi daya)

Chatoyancy

wani tunani sakamako daga daidaitacce layi daya fibrous inclusions ko (cat ta ido) cavities. A guda gudana haske yana bayyana a dama malã'iku da shugabanci na inclusions da aka fi gani a karkashin guda sama haske da duwatsu da aka yanke en cabochon

Chelsea launi rater

da kayan aiki kunshi wani hade da # CD, da aka gina don haka da cewa shi damar biyu kawai ƙunci daga sassan na bakan ya zama a bayyane, ta hanyar da shi: mai zurfi ja (kusa 690nm) da kuma rawaya da kore (kusa 570nm). Yana da amfani a nuna gaban Chrome ko cobalt a wasu duwatsu masu daraja, da ganewa na (Chrome) fenti a duwatsu da kuma raba wasu dutse mai daraja kayan daga kowa imitations. Tunãtarwa: Yi amfani da gargadi ãyã kawai. Hujja ne dogara a kan sauran gwaje-gwaje

Chromophore

(canza launi wakili). A ɓangare na kwayoyin da ke da alhakin wani fili ta launi. Shi ne ba a matsayin muhimmin bijiro da batun kafa a cikin sunadarai abun da ke ciki a idiochromatic duwatsu ko a matsayin accidentai kazamta a cikin allochromatic duwatsu

Tsabta

ambatacce amfani da su bayyana zumunta yanci daga duk wani internai lahani ko irregularity (inclusions) a cikin wani dutse mai daraja. A definition iya kuma za a mika wa sun hada da surface lahani (blemishes) a lokacin da idan akai la'akari da tsabta sa na dutse

Launi makada

wajen layi daya makada na launin gani a farfajiya na lu'ulu'u ne ko a cikin internai Tsarin na duwatsu (nuni da ci gaban bulan lalacewa ta hanyar bambance-bambance a samuwa sunadarai, taya, da yawan zafin jiki, matsa lamba da sauran abubuwan)

Color a duwatsu masu daraja

a gani ji na tsarin dokoki a cikin abin da fari haske za a iya raba (ja, orange, yellow, green, blue, Violet) kazalika da abin mamaki na shunayya abin da ba a samu a rana ta bakan. Launi ne aka bayyana ta ya dafa, jikewa da sautin. Jiki launi da wani gemstone aka samu daga haske wanda aka gani da kasancewa saboda da sha na wasu wavelengths na bayyane haske. Color kuma za a iya lalacewa ta hanyar watsawa, tsangwama daga haske da haske

Launi rabawa cikin sassa

launi rabawa cikin sassa tasowa a lokacin girman da crystal saboda saba yawa daga impurities. A saɓani a cikin launi (makada ko bangarori) da ake kullum gani bi data kasance crystal fuskõkinsu

Canza launi abubuwa

Zabe sha na haske saboda da gaban miƙa mulki abubuwa (Chrome, cobalt, jan, vanadium, manganese, da baƙin ƙarfe, nickel, titanium) a idiochromatic da allochromatic duwatsu

Karamin

m yana da irin wannan ma'ana ga m da kuma ne amfani musamman a lokacin da lu'ulu'u nuna babu alamar tsarin barbashi (misali, fme-grained jadeite Jade)

Hadedde gemstone

ga taru gemstone

Conch lu'u-lu'u

m lu'u-lu'u: lu'u-lu'u samu daga babban conch, a univalve mollusk samu a kashe bakin tekun na Florida, mashigar ruwa na California da Mexico. Wadannan lu'ulu'u ne kullum ruwan hoda (ruwan hoda orange ko farar) a cikin launi da kuma halin da ake da rashin nacreous shafi

Conchoidal

ga karaya

Saduwa da ni tamorphic

da recrystallization na ma'adinai abun ciki na pre-data kasance duwãtsu a ko kusa da lamba zone saboda kasancewar magmas

Contact twin

wani irin crystal Jona a cikin abin da mutane suke a lamba tare da na kowa jirgin sama (da tagwaye jirgin sama). Biyu sassa na irin wannan crystal ana haka alaka cewa idan wani sashi ne juya su ta hanyar 180 ° (a rabin bi da bi) game da wani axis (da tagwaye axis) sa'an nan biyu halves zai sa siffar mutum crystal. Da lamba tagwaye wanzu a biyu siffofin: guda lamba tagwaye-inda 2 halves na wani crystal ne a baya domin sabõda haka, idan daya da rabi ne juya su 180 ° game da jirgin sama na shiga, da tsari na al'ada crystal an samu. maimaita, polysynthetic ko lammelar tagwaye-a irin crystal Jona hada da jerin lamba tagwaye sau da yawa a cikin bakin ciki sosai faranti. Wadannan ana shirya a daura fuskantarwa zuwa ga nan da nan makwabta (misali, kamar yadda samu a corundum da feldspar). Ka kuma duba interpenetrant tagwaye

M kwana

da kwana na abin da ya faru, inda wani ray haske wanda aka tafiya daga wani optically denser zuwa rarer matsakaici ne refracted a 90 ° ga al'ada (watau, shi skims surface na biyu kafofin watsa labarai a lamba). Note: wani kara karuwa a kan wannan kwana na abin da ya faru zai sa refracted ray juya baya cikin asali matsakaici inda zai dawwama da dokokin tunani (watau, shi za a kaucewa ƙ nuna.)

Cryptocrystalline

(Hikimar rubutun = boye). Ambatacce amfani da su bayyana kayan kunshi wani m yawan kananan lu'ulu'u ne sau da yawa sub-microscopic kafa wani unbroken taro. A sub-microscopic crystal tara iya bayyana amorphous ga tsirara ido

Crystal

a crystal ne mai chemically uniform m da wani umurni da internai atomic tsarin da waje form a daure ta symmetrically shirya jirgin sama (lebur) fuskõkinsu

Crystal form

a crystal nau'i kunshi dukkan wadanda fuskokin wanda aka kamar wancan alaka da crystallographic axes (misali, dala, Prism, pinacoid, Dome)

Crystal al'ada

da crystal siffofi (form, da surface halaye) a cikin abin da ma'adanai yawanci faruwa an kira su crystal halaye

Crystal inclusions

crystal inclusions ne tabbatarwa da su da ciwon mun gwada kusurwa sasanninta, kuma in mun gwada da madaidaiciya gefuna. M gefuna da kuma dan kadan taso keya siffofin ma ya gana da saboda reabsorption na inclusions. (crystal inclusions yawanci nuna sama a taimako da rundunar bango a lokacin da kyan gani, a karkashin darkfield haske. Su za a iya bari ta amfani haye polars.)

Crystal fasali

crystal fasali nufin da daidaita juna na atomic tsarin. Wannan dai shi ne daidai haifuwa (sake bayyanar) da irin wannan crystal fuskõkinsu (gefuna, sasanninta) cewa nuna umurni na ciki tsari na abu.

Crystalline

crystalline abu da definition ne mai ma'adinai m wanda ions, atoms ko kwayoyin da ake shirya a wani ma'ana a fashion. A aikace, da kalmar ne sau da yawa amfani da su bayyana abubuwa mallakan na yau da kullum tsarin da directional Properties amma ba dole ba da waje na lissafi siffar

Crystallographic axes

wadannan su ne hasashen Lines na m tsawon Gudun ta cikin

manufa crystal a wasu tabbataccen inda dangane da fasali na crystal. Da suka rarraba a tsakiyar crystal, a wata aya da ake kira asali. (Su ne Lines na tunani daga wanda za a iya auna zumunta nisa da son zũciyõyin daban-daban fuskõkinsu.)

Mai ladabi lu'u-lu'u

mai ladabi lu'u-lu'u ne pearly tsarin gaba ɗaya ko partially sa

da sa baki na 'yan Adam dillancin cikin ciki na m mollusks. Wannan ya shafi ladabi lu'u-lu'u ko da ko ba tare da tsakiya

Mafitsara lu'u-lu'u

wani lu'u-lu'u wadda ta kafa a cikin jiki na lu'u-lu'u mollusk da aka spheroid a siffar

Dendritic hada

itãciya-kamar ko gansakuka-kamar crack cika (inda inclusions daban-daban kayan iya Fil hutu - yawanci baƙin ƙarfe oxide.)

Divitrify

to rabu da na idon yayi kamar gilashi luster da transluceny. (A haka al'amarin na da gilashi samfurin ake kira meta Jade - shi ne ta hanyar ci gaban incipient crystallization)

Dichroscope

da dichroscope ne wani kayan aiki da damar da pleochroic sakamakon dutse mai daraja ma'adanai da za a lura, biyu launuka ko inuwõyinta suna kusa, launi a lokaci

Diffraction

da diffraction haske ne mai na musamman nau'i na tsangwama haske a cikin abin da fari haske ta kakkarye, har (tsaga) a cikin ta bangaren launuka da hasken wuce ta hanyar karamin budewa ko lokacin da haske tãguwar ruwa wuce wani gefe tsakanin daban refracting abubuwa (misali, da play na launin gani a daraja opal)

Watsawa

watsawa ne rabuwa (watse up) farin haske a cikin na launuka da refraction (da lankwasawa na haske) kamar yadda haske ya wuce ta hanyar biyu karkata saman. A duwatsu masu daraja shi ne sau da yawa ake magana a kai a matsayin 'wuta'

Biyu Refractive

anisotropic - ma'adanai exhibiting directional na gani Properties (misali, duwatsu a cikin tetragonal, kyakkyawan trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic da triclinic tsarin)

Electromagnetic bakan

ambatacce amfani da dukan kewayon wavelengths na annuri makamashi daga mafi tsawo rediyo taguwar ruwa ta musamman takaice cosmic wavelengths

Abubuwa na fasali

da abubuwa na fasali su ne irin classifi-cation ga bakwai crystal tsarin. Su ne na'urorin don taimaka mana mu ware da kuma bayyana daban-daban daban na crystal siffar. Da suka hada da wani jirgin sama na fasali, an axis na fasali da kuma cibiyar fasali (duba ma'anar karkashin mutum da jerin)

Eluvium

eluvial adibas kunshi dutsen tarkace (tsakuwa) abin da aka eroded (weathered fita) daga rundunar dutsen, ya zauna, a wuri (a wuri) ba tare da jurewa harkokin sufuri a cikin kõguna

Emit

ya ba kashe ko fita (misali, haske)

Enantiomorphism

da kwayoyin tsarin ma'adini wanda ya ba Yunƙurin zuwa hagu da dama karkace ci gaban da ma'adini, kuma ta zuwa ga madauwari rabuwa. (Note: A jeri na kananan auxillary fuskõkinsu da suke akai-akai a bayyane a kan external nau'i taimako gano hagu ko dama handedness na crystal)

Kayan haɓɓaka aiki

ga wucin gadi magani

Epigenetic inclusions

post zamani inclusions. Wadanda abin ya faru bayan da samuwar rundunar crystal. Wadannan sun hada da daban-daban daban na fissures da kuma ma'adinai inclusions kafa ta exsolution (misali, rutile siliki a corundum); ba a ma maganar man / opticon, da dai sauransu, remnants a karaya cika duwatsu masu daraja.

Exsolution inclusions

ga exsolved

Exsolved

da unmixing na ma'adanai. Wasu nau'i-nau'i daga ma'adanai samar da m mafita a high yanayin zafi da kuma zama m at ƙananan yanayin zafi. Sa'ad da waɗannan sanyi sannu a hankali daya ma'adinai za a iya tilasta daga lokacin da rundunar tsarin cools da kwangila, a zahiri squeezing impurities cikin wõfintattu sarari inda suka crystallize (misali, rutile allura (alharini) a corundum)

Nau'i nau'i

nau'i nau'i ne babu haske dawo wa ido. Wannan yana sa da dutse don bayyana duhu da kuma rasa a billiance

Facet sunayen

faceted duwatsu masu daraja da kambi (saman rabo sama da abin ɗamara), da tebur (na tsakiya facet na da kambi), wani abin ɗamara (da sashe na dutse tare da mafi girma kewaye ko external iyaka), a Pavilion (kasa bangare kasa da abin ɗamara ). Duk sauran fuskoki dabam-dabam iya bambanta a cikin size, mita ko ma zama dangane da sabon salon amfani. Alal misali, a cikin misali mataki-yanke (Emerald yanke) duwatsu da culet (kananan facet a tushe na Pavilion) an maye gurbinsu da wani keel line (dogon layi mikawa tare da cibiyar kasa na Pavilion)

Karya tsakiyan nonon mata

ganin rabuwar

Gashin tsuntsu hada

wani jirgin sama na minti daya cavities da kullum bayyana a matsayin taron lafiya sanda-kamar sassan intercommunicating tashoshi (yawanci ruwa cika).

Fibrous

ambaci bai wa kayan inda bijiro da batun kafa lu'ulu'u ne allura-dimbin yawa (misali, asbestos, nephrite Jade)

Yatsa inclusions

wadannan iya iya sani da waraka gashinsa kuma kunshi interconnecting cibiyoyin sadarwa na ruwa-cika tashoshi da droplets kama wani yatsa. Yawancin lokaci sakamakon ma'adinai mafita hankali tace a cikin wani pre-data kasance crack a cikin wani riga kafa crystal, da kuma warkar da fissure. Da sauran halin da ake ciki inda irin wannan fasali iya faruwa ne a lokacin zafi zafi magani. Alamar yatsa ne na kowa a bi da yaƙũtu

Gama

gama yana nufin faceting ingancin da dutse mai daraja da ake hukunci da mataki na haske, tsari, da kuma flatness kowane facet

Haske

haske ne watsi da ake iya gani haske da gemstones da aka gitta su a bayyane ko ganuwa radiations na fi guntu zango (mafi girma makamashi)

Karaya

karaya ne wanda bai bi ka'ida ko doka ba guntu ko hutu a cikin wani dutse

Dutse mai daraja

mai duwatsu masu daraja na kowane irin, a yanka kuma goge don ado (lu'u-lu'u ne mai sananne banda zuwa karshen bukata). A dutse mai daraja ta definition yana daya cewa ya mallaka kyau, karko da kuma rarity

Glass

da kalmar da gilashi ne amfani abubuwa wanda aka halitta da narkewa da m sanyaya na ma'adinai abubuwa, sakamakon samuwar amorphous abu. Glass na iya zama wucin gadi (manmade, wani lokacin ake magana a kai a matsayin manna) ko fiye da wuya, na halitta misali, obsidian (volcanic da gilashi), tektites (tsammani ya zama meteoric fantsama kayayyakin)

Dutse

dutse ne mai haske launin, m-grained intrusive igneous dutsen sanya har mafi yawa na ma'adini, feldspar da Mica

Ci gaban Ha]

m da kuma duhu makada a mike Lines a kusassari da bi tsarin juna da ma'adinai

Al'ada

da halayyar siffar a cikin abin da ma'adinai fi faruwa. Al'ada ba wai kawai ya hada da waje nau'i fiye soma da ma'adinai amma kuma hankula surface effects da

Hackly

ga karaya

Halo hada

crystal hada kewaye da wani danniya crack (s). Wadannan iya yi kama da wani malam buɗe ido biyu fuka-fuki emanating daga kunshe crystal (wanda yake shi ne yawanci zircon)

Taurin

taurin ne da ikon wani ma'adinai na da su yi tsayayya tõno (abrasion). Ka kuma duba Moh ta sikelin

Warkad da fasa

warkar fasa (fasa ko cleavages) inda wani ruwa shiga hutu da crystal girma da baya tare. Sau da yawa rabo daga cikin ruwa da ake kama a tarko a cikin cavities da tashoshi haddasa feathery ko yatsa-kamar alamu (wani lokacin baƙin ƙarfe-stained)

Ya dafa

ya dafa yana nufin sunan launi kanta: da tsarki na majiyai na ja, orange, yellow, green, blue, Violet da bambancin daga cikin wadannan. Ya dafa ma yana nufin abin mamaki na shunayya (tsakanin ja da Violet), wanda ba a samu a rana ta bakan

Hydrothermal

duwatsu hõrarru, yawanci a karshe matakai na igneous (Abubakar) daga magma arziki a cikin ruwa da sauran abubuwa maras tabbas. A hydrothermal veins daga ma'adinai arziki mafita tace ta hanyar gibba da fissures a sedimentary duwatsu da kuma irin crystal sahu cavities a dutsen

Idiochromatic

a lokacin da miƙa mulki kashi ne mai muhimmanci bijiro da batun kafa a cikin wani dutse mai daraja abu, da dutse mai daraja abu ne idiochromatic (idio = kai, chroma = launi)

Nutsewa cell

kananan gilashin cell ga dauke da ya dace taya. A manufa baya ta amfani da nutsewa cell shi ne, Refractive index na ruwa ne ga dutse, da sauki zai kasance a ga a cikin dutse. Kusan duk wani colorless ruwa, ko da ruwa, zai sare surface tunani, da kuma yin duba inclusions sauƙin

A wuri

kayan ci karo a matsayin inda aka asali kafa ko ajiye aka ce da za a samu a wuri (a zahiri a wurin)

Hada

Janar lokaci ga wani aibi ko irregularity cikin dutse mai daraja. Inclusions za a iya raba uku daban-daban: m-biyu crystalline (misali, zircon a shuɗin yaƙutu) ko wadanda ba crystalline (misali, na halitta da gilashi a peridot) mai yiwuwa ne. Cavities-wadannan iya samar a lokacin da rundunar duwatsu masu daraja girma (primary inclusions), ko kuma daga baya (sakandare inclusions). Ko dai irin na iya cika da wani hade da ruwa, iskar gas da kuma ko m. Waɗanda suke tãre da biyu ko fiye bulan an cinye multiphase. Ci gaban mamaki-launi rabawa cikin sassa da Jona ne duka misalai na ci gaban mamaki

Infrared

infrared hanyar da ke ƙasa ja da wannan kewayon radiation ta fara da wavelengths da suke ba fiye da 700nm jan haske. Infrared radiation ne kullum da aka sani da zafin rana domin ya samar da wani abin mamaki da zafi a lõkacin da ta sãme mu tsallaka

Tsangwama

inda biyu haskoki tafiya a cikin hanyar, amma daga lokaci (mataki), yardatayya tsoma baki da juna haddasa ko dai jimlar nau'i nau'i na haske ko da pre-dominance of daya ko fiye launuka

Tsangwama Figures

wadannan su ne na gani illa da gani, a lõkacin biyu Refractive ma'adanai suna kyan gani, ta hanyar layi daya fuskõkinsu a cikin convergent katako na polarized haske. Suna iya amfani bayanai game da na gani hali na dutse

Interpenetrant tagwaye

wani irin crystal Jona a cikin abin da biyu mutane sun saboda haka girma tare da suke bayyana a yi tsinkãyi juna (sau da yawa samar da giciye ko star duwatsu)

Iridescence

iridescence ko play na launin bayyana launi ko jerin launuka samar da tsangwama ko diffraction a lõkacin da haske da aka nuna ko dai daga bakin ciki fina-finai ko daga musamman da tsarin masu daraja opal

Isomorphous sauyawa

da aka canza daya sinadaran da kashi ga wani daga cikin wannan valency a cikin sunadarai abun da ke ciki. Wannan results a fadi da bambancin a cikin jiki Properties na mambobi ne na jerin. Valency: of irin wannan sinadaran da yanayi da ionic radius

Isotropic

ga singly Refractive

Keshi ladabi lu'u-lu'u

ta halitta abin da ke faruwa wadanda ba nucleated ruwa tare lu'u-lu'u wanda ya samar da wani mollusk a idan aka mayar da su zuwa ruwa, bayan kau da wani amfanin gona na wadanda ba nucleated ladabi lu'u-lu'u. Wadannan su ne ba da za a gauraye da marine iri pearis wanda yawanci yawa karami. Da ruwa tare `Keshi 'ne kawai ake kira saboda su ma ba su girma daga wani wucin gadi tsakiya. Wani lokacin ake magana a kai a matsayin `seedless 'lu'u-lu'u a yi da bambanci da wadanda ba nucleated. Ka kuma duba Biwa lu'u-lu'u

Keshi lu'u-lu'u (marine)

Japan kira iri lu'u-lu'u `Keshi '(poppies). A jam'iyya a nan shi ne tsakanin kankanin girman poppy tsaba da kuma da kadan ta halitta kafa lu'u-lu'u

Konoscope

a polariscope Fitted tare da karfi da convergent ruwan tabarau wanda taimaka tallafa a Viewing kutse Figures

Lamellae inclusions

lalacewa ta hanyar polysynthetic Jona. Zai iya bayyana a matsayin blinds ko m kifi-line. Su ma suna bayyana don ya tarye a kusassari (misali, a corundum inda inda hadu)

Lateritic kasa

ƙasa kayan (hada da dutsen, niƙaƙƙun gaɓãɓuwa ​​da kuma ciyayi) wanda aka farko samu daga bazu basait (tarar grained duhu volcanic dutsen arziki a cikin baƙin ƙarfe da magnesium, wanda yake shi ne sosai bude ga alãmõmin da sunadarai weathering a cikin wani wurare masu zafi sauyin yanayi)

Luminescence

Janar lokaci na bada kashe na bayyane `sanyi 'haske da wani abu a kan samun ragi makamashi a daya form ko wata. Da biyar ka'idojin luminescent mamaki ne: chemi-luminescence (sakamakon guba canji), tribo-luminescence (samar da gogayya), thermo-luminescence (samar da zafi), photo¬luminescence (samar da ake iya gani ko ganuwa radiations na mafi girma makamashi / fi guntu zango) da kuma cathodoluminescence (sakamakon daga zumudi da wani na'urar katako a cikin wani wuri jam'iyya)

Luster

luster ne yawa da ingancin hasken da aka nuna daga surface na dutse. Da wadannan sharuddan da ake amfani da su bayyana gemstone lusters: ƙarfe: high luster nuna ta opaque ƙarfe ma'adanai. adamantine: high surface reflectivity. vitreous: gilashin-kamar luster hankula na wani Mafi yawan duwatsu masu daraja. resinous: hankula luster na resins (taushi tare da low RI). waxy: kusan Matte surface (wani lokacin ake kira m). m: dan kadan m neman sakamakon da watsi da haske da wani microscopically m surface. pearly: luster lu'u-lu'u / uwa-da-lu'u-lu'u. silky: fibrous luster na siliki

Mabe (ladabi) lu'u-lu'u

hadedde ladabi bororo lu'u-lu'u a cikin abin da asali tsakiya an cire da kuma maye gurbinsu da wani karami dutsen ado cemented a, da Dome-dimbin yawa yanki na mother- na-lu'u-lu'u glued zuwa ga tushe rufe yankin rasa a nacre

Magma

zubi (ruwa) rock

Malleable

malleable wajen kasancewa m da ake mika dimbin yawa ko ta doke tare da guduma, ko da matsa lamba na rollers

Man da aka yi da

wani mutum da aka yi da samfurin ta definition yana daya da aka hada a cikin wani dakin gwaje-gwaje. (haduwa ne ya sa tare, ko kuma hada abubuwa a cikin wani hadadden dukan). A karshen sakamakon ya kasance mai roba gemstone (watau, daya da cewa yana da wata halitta takwaransa) ko wani wucin gadi gemstone (watau, wanda ba shi da wani halitta takwaransa)

M

ambatacce amfani da su bayyana kayan da ya mallaka da tabbataccen internai tsarin mai crystal, amma wanda ba ya nuna m na lissafi nau'i. Wannan za a iya hada da daya (misali, ya tashi ma'adini) ko fiye crystal raka'a (misali, jadeite)

Mettalic

ga luster

Metamict

da kalmar amfani da kayan wadda ta sha wahala hutu-saukar daga wani crystalline zuwa jera amorphous jihar. kowa a ma'adanai dauke da kayan rediyoaktif (misali, low irin zircon)

Metamorphic duwatsu

metamorphic (a zahiri, canza a form) rawa suna kafa daga pre-data kasance duwatsu da farko da mataki na matsa lamba, zafin rana da kuma / ko gabatarwar sabon sinadaran da abubuwa

Tsarin awo carat (CT)

daya tsarin awo carat = daya biyar na gram (0.20gr) ko 200 milligrams (MG). A tsarin awo carat sashi ne na nauyi a gare dukkan gemstones da ladabi lu'u-lu'u. Nauyin da aka bayyana biyu gidan goma wuraren da dicimal sukan loosely ake kira 'maki', watau, 1 tsarin awo carat = 100 maki

Madubin likita

wani na gani kayan aiki kunshi wani hade da ruwan tabarau wanda yake bada wani ya ɗaukaka image wani abu. Wasu daga cikin mafi muhimmanci amfani da magnification: hada binciken (na halitta vs mutum da aka yi. Yanayin da samuwar / crystal girma). surface jarrabawa (ingancin yanke (fasali), goge (yanayin fuskoki dabam-dabam, firemarks); ganewa na hadedde duwatsu. ganewa na wucin gadi jiyya. gane yanayin shigewa zuwa lalacewa (misali, kasancewar karaya da / ko tsakiyan nonon mata); gane anya (SR vs .DR, kuma yana iya nuna adadin birefringence)

Ma'adinai

a ma'adinai ne mai sauƙi abin da ke faruwa inorganic abu da ciwon sunadarai abun da ke ciki da kuma jiki Properties abin da suka kasance mãsu cikin kunkuntar iyaka. Its tsarin ne yawanci crystalline

Monochromatic haske

monochromatic haske ne hasken daya zango ne kawai. Da misali rawaya monochromatic haske amfani da Refractometer ma'aunai da aka samu daga wani sodium tururi fitila. Wannan zahiri kunshi biyu sosai a hankali spaced watsi Lines, wanda nufin darajar ne 589.3nm

Multiphase inclusions

inclusions da zai dauke da ruwa da kuma iskar gas da / ko lu'ulu'u

Nacre

a mugunya samar da alkyabbar wasu mollusks abin da siffofin da iridescent yadudduka na biyu da lu'u-lu'u da uwar-da-lu'u-lu'u surface cikin mollusk harsashi. Nacre kunshi crystalline carbonate na lemun tsami da kuma wani Organic abu da ake kira conchiolin

Namometers (nm)

naúrar na ji na fi guntu wavelengths na electromagnetic bakan (annuri makamashi). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth wani ɓangare na wani millimeter (1 / 1,000,000 nm) misali, a bayyane haske da dama a tsakanin 700nm (ja) da kuma 400nm (Violet)

'Yan ƙasar yanke

ambatacce amfani da wani salon na yanke zaba domin iyakar nauyin riƙewa. Wadannan zurfi da yanke duwatsu tare da manyan haimõmi sau da yawa na bukatar

recutting to kai ga mafi alhẽri rabbai

Korau crystal

cavities a cikin dutse mai daraja da ciwon crystalline siffar. Wadannan cavities aka halicce a lokacin da wasu yankunan girma a wani sauri kudi fiye da sauran yankunan, forming da kwasfa a wõfintattu ko inda asali crystal hada da aka narkar da fitar da (mummunan lu'ulu'u ne sau da yawa suna bayyana m fiye da rundunar karkashin darkfield haske)

Korau hada

wani mummunan hada iya zama gas ko ruwa cika ko dauke da karamin m hada (duba korau crystal)

Korau karatu

idan dutse a karkashin gwajin a kan wani refractometer yana da wani R.1 sama da kewayon da kayan aiki, babu inuwa gefen za a gani (sai dai cewa na lamba ruwa)

Wadanda ba crystalline

ma'adanai da kuma sauran kayan da ake ce ya zama wadanda ba crystalline, ko amorphous (a zahiri, ba tare da form) a lõkacin da suka Jack wani ma'ana a internai atomic tsarin da geometrically na yau da kullum m bayyanar (misali, da ma'adinai abubuwa, opal da gilashin, da kuma hanyoyin gudanar da kayan)

Wadanda ba fari haske

wadanda ba fari haske (watau, masu launin) ne aka bayyana a cikin sharuddan da ya dafa (watau, da launi na pre-rinjaye zango), jikewa (zurfin ko ƙarfin rinjaye launi) da kuma sautin (inuwa-haskaka duhu)

Al'ada

a kimiyyan gani da hasken wuta dukkan kusassari ne ma'auni daga al'ada, wani hasashen line kõma a dama malã'iku (90 batu inda ray sãme surface, ba daga surface kanta

Na gani axis

wani shugabanci na guda refraction cikin wani in ba haka ba ninki biyu Refractive crystal da aka sani a matsayin na gani axis

Na gani hali

ganin na gani yanayi

Na gani adadi Sphere

gilashin Sphere Fitted ga wani ɗan gajeren sanda wanda abubuwa a matsayin condensing ruwan tabarau ya taimake yunkura tsangwama alamu gani tare da wani na gani axis a anisotropic abu

Na gani yanayi

na gani yanayin da ma'adinai: ma'adanai kasu kashi uniaxial, biaxial da isotropic (na gani hali). Uniaxial da biaxial ma'adanai suna kara subdivided cikin wadanda waxanda suke optically tabbatacce da waɗanda waxanda suke optically korau (na gani ãyã)

Na gani ãyã

ganin na gani yanayi

Na gani yawa

na gani yawa ne mai hadaddun dukiya wadda demonstates kanta a cikin slowing saukar da haske. (duba refraction)

Organic kayayyakin

kwayoyin kayayyakin sũ ne waɗanda kayan samar da ayyuka na zaune kwayoyin

Orient (lu'u-lu'u)

da iridescent surface Sheen na dutse mai daraja lu'u-lu'u da kuma uwa-da-lu'u-lu'u. Shi ne ya sa ta tsangwama daga haske a fina-finan na bakin ciki (da bakin ciki faranti na nacreous Layer) da kuma ta diffraction daga m gefuna da faranti

Oriental lu'u-lu'u

yin amfani da wannan lokaci ne da takaitawa ba ta kwatanta halitta lu'u-lu'u samu a sait ruwa mollusks na Persian Gulf. Duk da haka, ya kasance mafi general cinikayya al'ada ce a aji dukkan saltwater halitta lu'u-lu'u kamar yadda na Gabas

Rabuwar

rabuwar ne mai breakage cewa ya auku tare da wani jirgin sama na wani rauni, maimakon tare jirage layi daya zuwa crystal fuskõkinsu, ko zai yiwu

crystal fuskantar, kamar yadda a tsakiyan nonon mata (an kuma aka sani da ƙarya tsakiyan nonon mata)

Lu'u-lu'u hatsi

da lu'u-lu'u hatsi ne da misali guda ɗaya don lu'u-lu'u yin la'akari 1 hatsi = 0.25 carat (1 CT = 4grains)

Lu'u-lu'u

lu'ulu'u ne na halitta tsarin secreted bazata kuma ba tare da taimakon wani mutum dillancin, a cikin ciki na mollusks. Suna hada da wani kwayoyin abu (a scleroprotein mai suna conchiolin) da kuma na alli carbonate (yawanci a cikin nau'i na aragonite) shirya a concentric yadudduka, da outermost na waxanda suke da mafi yawa nacreous

Pearly

ga luster

Pegmatites

igneous dutsen daga m riba sau da yawa dauke da rare ma'adanai, ciki har da manyan lu'ulu'u ne na gemstones (misali, lu'ulu'u, chrysoberyl, feldspar, ma'adini, spessartite garnet)

Phosphorescence

phosphorescence ne a sakamako jinkirta haske (watau, shi ne wani afterglow). An ci gaba da watsi da ake iya gani haske bayan tushen energizing radiation ya daina

Photoluminescence

photoluminescence ne mai na gama lokaci ga haske, kuma phosphorescence. Wannan dai shi ne sakamako nuna da wasu kayan na samar da ake iya gani haske a kan anã gitta su short zango radiation (misali, electromagnetic radiations a bayyane (blue), ultraviolet da x-ray ɓangare na bakan)

Pinpoints

kananan barbashi tarar kamar yadda inclusions. Sa'ad da waɗannan su ne ba a cikin manyan lambobin suna iya bayyana a matsayin wani girgije da kuma nuna gaskiya na dutse za a iya sosai

Placer adibas

placer adibas kunshi surface yawa daga muhimmanci da ma'adanai na high musamman nauyi (da karko) wanda kafa ta weathering na iyaye dutsen da, a mafi yawan lokuta, baya aka hawa zuwa rafi ko kalaman mataki

Jirgin sama na fasali

daya daga cikin abubuwa na fasali. wani jirgin sama na fasali na da hasashen jirgin sama wanda ya raba a jikin shiga kashi biyu domin kowane bangare ne na nuna (madubi) image na wasu bangare (watau, kowane sashi ba shi da ainihin kishiya takwaransa na wasu)

Robobi

a general lokaci domin da dama kwayoyin mutum da aka yi da abubuwa (yawanci a guduro bisa polymer) wanda za a iya extruded ko shafi da zafin rana da kuma / ko matsa lamba

Play na launi

da kalmar play na launin bayyana jerin launuka gani a lõkacin da haske da aka nuna daga bakin ciki fina-finai ko daga mufuradi raga-kamar tsarin da masu daraja opal. An samar da diffraction (wajen gutsura up farin haske zuwa ta bangaren launuka da haske wuce ta hanyar karamin budewa) wanda yake shi ne na musamman nau'i na tsangwama haske

Pleochroism

pleochroism (a zahiri, da yawa masu launin) shi ne babban lokaci amfani da su bayyana daban-daban directional launuka wanda za a iya gani a wasu launin duwatsu cewa raba haske (watau, ana ninki biyu refracting) saboda su na ciki crystal tsarin. Yana hada dichroism (biyu canza launin) da kuma trichroism (uku a canza launin)

Polariscope

da polariscope ne kayan aiki kunshi raka'a biyu domin samar da jirgin sama polarized haske shirya tare da juyawa mataki a tsakãninsu. Da na'urar gwaje-gwaje kawai ko abu ne singly ko ninki biyu Refractive

Polariscope halayen

singly Refractive-kayan zauna duhu a ko'ina a 360 ° bi da bi. Idan abu ne karkashin internai iri shi yana iya nuna anomalous (ƙarya) biyu refraction (ADR), yawanci a cikin nau'i na wavy makada ko wanda bai bi ka'ida ko doka ba faci. Biyu Refractive-duwatsu yanke daga rai guda crystal da hudu matsayi na haske da hudu matsayi na duhu. Crystalline aggregates ko nauyi hada DR kayan iya bayyana dukkan haske a ko'ina a 360 ° bi da bi. Tsangwama adadi-a yanayin saukan DR abu, idan yanayi ne da kuma dama wani tsangwama adadi ne lura, shi ne kuma zai yiwu domin sanin ko dutse ne uniaxial ko biaxial. (na gani ãyã-da zarar ya sami tsangwama adadi, shi ne to zai yiwu domin sanin ko dutse ne tabbatacce ko korau da taimakon

m faranti kawota musamman ga cewa manufar)

Polycrystalline

ma'adanai waxanda suke aggregates kananan lu'ulu'u ne aka cinye polycrystalline. Wadannan kananan lu'ulu'u ne za a iya gane ta yin amfani da magnification, da kuma wani lokacin da ido kadai (misali, kusan dukkan jadeite Jade)

Polysynthetic tagwaye

ga lammelar tagwaye

Potch (na kowa opal)

Milky kayan rasa a play na launi, hada da silica duniyoyin da unequal size game da shi haifar da haske da za a warwatsa maimakon diffracted

Protogenetic inclusions

pre-data kasance inclusions: wadanda suke ba a gaban rundunar crystal fara da nunawa da aka tunawa 'shirye sanya' a cikin na ƙarshen (misali, m barbashi da kananan lu'ulu'u ne. Suna ayan da za a irregularly jini warwatse ko'ina da aka ba safai alaka da rundunar crystal ta tsarin

Pseudomorph

a pseudomorph (ƙarya form) ne mai ma'adinai wanda ya riƙi cikin hanyar (siffar) wani ma'adinai (ko kwayoyin abu) saboda zafin rana da kuma / ko matsa lamba ko sinadaran da tsari, misali, Tiger ta ido (ma'adini maye crocidolite, an asbestos ma'adinai); itace agate (a ma'adini sauyawa na itace)

Gani

tunani makõma take da wani surface (ko internai ko waje) na wasu daga cikin haske wanda da dama a kan cewa surface. Ka kuma duba Snell ta Laws

Refraction

refraction ne canji a shugabanci a cikin abin da haske tafiya a lõkacin da ta wuce daga wannan kafofin watsa labaru zuwa wani daban-daban na gani yawa (sai dai a lokacin da karin da na kowa surface na biyu kafofin watsa labarai a 90 °). Kamar yadda hasken wuce daga wani rarer zuwa denser matsakaici (misali, daga iska a cikin wani dutse) shi ne lankwasa zuwa ga al'ada, conversely kamar yadda wuce daga wani denser zuwa rarer matsakaici an lankwasa daga al'ada. Na gani yawa ne mai hadaddun dukiya da nuna kanta a cikin slowing saukar da haske. Ka kuma duba Snell ta Laws

Refractive index (RI)

da RI ne mai sauki rabo gwada gudun haske a cikin iska don gudun haske a cikin wani da aka ba matsakaici. Da misali amfani da aunawa Refractive index ne iska (tsananin wani wuri). ta haka ne da RI na iska ne dauke su 1.00

Yankin metamorphic

da recrystallization na ma'adinai abun ciki na pre-data kasance duwatsu a yanayin zafi ya karu (700 ° -2000 ° C) da kuma a karkashin matsin

Zumunta yawa

Dubi musamman nauyi (SG)

Saura wavelengths

saura wavelengths su ne wadanda wavelengths ba tunawa da kayan da ya ba mu hada da perc-eived launi wani abu

Resinous

Dubi luster

Rock

wani dutsen kunshi ma'adinai barbashi da suka girma ko sun cemented tare da sunadarai tafiyar matakai ko an bonded tare da zafin rana, ko kuma matsa lamba

Jikewa

yana nufin ingancin ko tsanani na launin gani a brilliancy filasha na m faceted duwatsu

Schiller

Dubi Sheen

Scintillation

sparkle. bãyar kashe na gajeren, mai haske filasha na haske

Sectile

sectile nufin da kayan damar da ake peeled da wuka da wani m yanke

Sedimentary duwatsu

wadanda kafa ta ginawa har na kayan (sediments) wanda ya samo asali daga jiki da kuma sinadaran fashewa da pre-data kasance duwatsu a duniya surface

Seed lu'u-lu'u

kadan lu'u-lu'u (kasa da v. hatsi / kimanin. 2mm) da ake ta halitta kafa a cikin taushi da nama na mollusk a sakamakon mamayewa na hatsi na yashi, free iyo qwai, parasites ko wasu kasashen waje jikinsu. Seed lu'u-lu'u yawanci wanda bai bi ka'ida ko doka ba da kuma lebur, amma a lokacin da rare zagaye wadanda aka sãme, suka rabu daga don amfani a kayan ado. Ka kuma duba Keshi lu'u-lu'u

Zabe sha

zabe sha na haske ne suppression ko sha na wasu wavelengths daga haske wucewa ta hanyar wani abu, ko kuma nuna kashe ta surface. A launi daga cikin kayan da sakamakon daga sauran (saura) wavelengths cewa kai da ido

Sheen (ko Schiller)

Sheen ne mai shimmering ko yaxuwa (shimfiɗa ta,) gani sakamako lalacewa ta hanyar hasken da ake nuna daga inclusions ko tsarin fasali a cikin dutse. Kalmar hada da chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence da play na launi a opal)

Silk (hada)

jerin lafiya a layi daya needles (akai-akai rutile)

Single Refractive

Har ila yau gaba ka koma ga isotropic. ma'adanai da nuna wannan na gani Properties a dukkan inda (misali, duwatsu a siffar sukari tsarin da amorphous kayan)

Snell ta Laws na refraction

a lokacin da wani haske ray wuce daga wannan matsakaici cikin wani akwai wani tabbataccen rabo tsakanin ba tare da kwana na abin da ya faru da kuma ba tare da na kwana na refraction. Da ya faru ray, da refracted ray da al'ada (a batu na abin da ya faru) ne dukkan su a cikin jirgin sama. A m rabo tsakanin kwana na abin da ya faru da kuma refraction na kowane biyu kafofin watsa labarai a gani lamba aka kira ta Snell da Refractive index (RI)

Kudu Sea lu'u-lu'u

giant ladabi lu'u-lu'u, mai ladabi a azurfa-lipped lu'u-lu'u oysters da diamita na 12 ko ma 16mm. Wadannan babban farin lu'u-lu'u sanã'anta da sunan Kudu Sea domin an asali samar da Japan a Microne-Sia da Indonesia. A yau wadannan lu'u-lu'u da ake more akai-akai samar a Australia da kuma Burma, tare da Indonesia, da Philippines, Papua New Guinea da kuma Thailand a matsayin kasa da muhimmanci kafofin. Na zamani a can bai kasance wani cin nasara wucin gadi spat tarin azurfa-lipped lu'u-lu'u oysters, wanda ke nufin cewa samar da uwar oysters yana da iyaka da farashin daidai da babban

Musamman nauyi (SG)

da SG ko zumunta yawa daga wani abu ne rabo tsakanin nauyin wani abu da kuma nauyin wani, sunã daidaita girma na ruwa mai tsarkakẽwa a 4 ° C (ruwa ta iyakar yawa) da kuma a misali na yanayi matsa lamba. SG aka alaka da sinadaran abun da ke ciki na kayan kazalika da Inter-atomic bonding (a sakamako, an rinjayi ba kawai ta atomic nauyin daban-daban bangaren abubuwa amma har da iri a cikin abin da atoms an sanya tare)

Spectroscope

wani kayan aiki da raba wani ray haske a cikin ta bijiro da batun kafa wavelengths ko bakan launuka ta wajen wani Prism ko diffraction grating. A spectroscope damar daya a ga abin da takamaiman sashe (Lines ko makada) ko yankunan (m sha) na fari haske da ake tunawa da wani gemstone da dispersing ko yada fitar da saura wavelengths wanda aka daukar kwayar cutar ko nuna daga dutse a karkashin gwajin (ba dukkan duwatsu nuna a bakan, ba dukkan spectrums gani ne bincike amma sha makada iya nuna canza launi wakili ko gaban wani abubuwa)

Splintery

ga karaya

Fasali

fasali nufin da tsari ko ma'auni na siffar da dutse mai daraja a duka fuskar-up wuri, kuma a profile

Syngenetic inclusions

zamani inclusions kunshi abubuwa da aka gabatar a lokaci guda kamar yadda rundunar crystai (misali, ma'adinai daskararru. taya a cavities da warkad da fasa. shiyya makada, ruwa inclusions. burbushi na ci gaban irin su launi rabawa cikin sassa da tagwaye samuwar. Babu akai-akai wani umurce intergrowth tsakanin syngenetic inclusions da rundunar crystal har biyu su bãyar da wani tsarin dangantaka gudana tawurin dokoki crystallographic

Roba gemstones

a roba samfurin yana da guda sunadarai abun da ke ciki, atomic tsarin da jiki Properties a matsayin halitta takwaransa (misali, roba Emerald, roba corundum, da dai sauransu)

Tenacity

tenacity ko tauri ne da juriya da wani dutse mai daraja ga watse ko karaya. An alaka da ma'adanai ikon zuwa sha gigitad da ba tare da katsewa na internai tsarin. Sharuddan ya gana da a wannan batun sun hada da gaggautsa, sectile, malleable, m kuma na roba

Bakin ciki fina-finan

kyan gani, a karkashin nuna haske wadannan bakin ciki fina-finai da wani iridescent bayyanar hali na bakin ciki Layer da man fetur a kan ruwa ko multicolored surface wani sabulu kumfa

Uku lokaci hada

wani ruwa-cika rami dauke da wani kumfa da crystal

Sautin

sautin yana nufin zumunta lightness ko duhu ya gane (ko wani ya dafa ko na fari ga baki)

Total na ciki gani

total na ciki tunani na faruwa a inda wani, ray haske wucewa daga mai denser zuwa rarer matsakaici a wani kwana mafi girma daga m kwana da ake mayar da su zuwa ga denser matsakaici inda ya yi ɗã'a ga dokokin gani

Tauri

ga tenacity

Mika mulki abubuwa

suna amfani da wasu abubuwa da ƙarfe saboda su atomic tsarin, sakamako da zabe sha na haske a idiochromatic da allochromatic duwatsu. Su ne Chrome, cobalt, jan, vanadium, manganese, da baƙin ƙarfe, nickel da titanium

Aika da

auku (misali, haske), daga wannan matsakaici zuwa wani; aika fita (misali, wata alama) ko aika a kan (e..g., daga mutum daya zuwa wani)

Nuna gaskiya

da 'yanci da abin haske ne haƙĩƙa, sun shige ko daukar kwayar cutar ta hanyar dutse. A daban-daban digiri na nuna gaskiya da aka bã kamar: m (TP) -A m abu nuna da kuma garwaya da karamin adadin da haske wanda da dama a kan shi, amma damar mafi auku, ta hanyar. An abu kyan gani, a cikin dutse yana bayyana karara da jinsin. Sub-m (S-TP) -A babba adadin haske ne daukar kwayar cutar ta hanyar dutse, amma kawai da shaci wani abu a daya gefen dutse ba za a iya bambanta. Sub-translucent (S-TL) -only mai karamin adadin haske iya wuce ta cikin dutse mai daraja a na bakin ciki gefuna. Opaque (0) -ail na haske wanda da dama uwa wani opaque abu ne ko dai nuna ko tunawa. Babu haske wuce ta cikin kayan, ko da a bakin ciki gefuna.

Treacle hada

mai zafi-kalaman ko roiled sakamako-wisps da swirls na launi

Twin crystal

a tagwaye crystal ne mai crystal wanda aka hada da biyu halves na wannan crystal ko biyu ko fiye da lu'ulu'u ne daga cikin wannan jinsin wanda da kai tsaye crystallographic dangantaka da juna, kuma suka girma tare a wani tsakaitã hanya (duba lamba tagwaye da interpenetrant tagwaye)

Biyu lokaci hada

wani ruwa-cika rami dauke da wani kumfa ko wani crystal

Ultraviolet (UV)

ultraviolet yana nufin bayan Violet. Wannan kewayon radiation ta fara da wavelengths da suke fi guntu fiye da 400nm na Violet haske

Uniaxial duwatsu

a cikin kyakkyawan, trigonal da tetragonal crystal tsarin akwai wani na gani axis (shugabanci na guda refraction): ma'adanai na ga wadannan tsarin da ake da aka sani da uniaxial (a uniaxial duwatsu da na gani axis ne a layi daya ga babba a tsaye 'c' axis)

Unit cell

naúrar cell na crystal tsarin wanda yake shi ne mafi karami na wani crystal wanda har yanzu mallaka da halayyar Properties na da crystal aka cinye a naúrar cell. A hanya a cikin abin da naúrar Kwayoyin suna stacked da uwar yanayi kayyade waje bayyanar da crystal

Shãmaki hada

gani gashin tsuntsu hada

A bayyane haske

a bayyane haske ne wani nau'i na annuri makamashi wanda ya ba Yunƙurin zuwa ga abin mamaki na gani. Duk wani zango na electromagnetic radiation da ke kimanin tsakanin 400nm da 700nm ne bayyane zuwa ga mutum ido kamar yadda haske

Vitreous

ga luster

Zango

a zango aka bayyana a matsayin nĩsa a tsakãninsa biyu a jere kololuwa na cewa kalaman

Waxy

ga luster

White haske

fararen haske (mixed haske) aka hada da wani kimanin daidai cakuda dukan launuka ko wavelengths cewa yin sama da ake iya gani bakan (ja, orange, yellow, green, blue, kuma Violet). A launi na haske yi dabam da ya dogara a kan zango. Red tãguwar ruwa da mafi tsawo wavelengths (700 + nm) da kuma wannan ragẽwo ta hanyar bakan zuwa Violet wavelengths, wanda da mafi guntu (400nm-game 1 / 4 da tsawon da ja haskoki)

Taga

m yankin na low launi tsanani lalacewa ta hanyar haske yayyo abin da izni bango a baya da dutse da za a gani (karanta-ta sakamako)

Zircon Halo

ga Halo hada

Shiyyoyi striae

ganin launi makada

kuskure: Content ana kiyaye !!